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Texas Hold'em ist eine Variante des Kartenspiels Poker. Texas Hold'em ist. Im Kartenspiel Poker beschreibt der Begriff Hand die besten fünf Karten, die . Easy Poker oder Let It Ride ist eine Pokervariante, die in Spielbanken angeboten wird. Bei dieser Spielart spielen die Teilnehmer nicht gegeneinander, sondern.

To facilitate this, in most tournaments, blinds rise over the duration of the tournament. Unlike in a ring game or cash game , a player's chips in a tournament cannot be cashed out for money and serve only to determine the player's placing.

To enter a typical tournament, a player pays a fixed buy-in and at the start of play is given a certain quantity of tournament poker chips.

Commercial venues may also charge a separate fee, or withhold a small portion of the buy-in, as the cost of running the event.

Tournament chips have only notional value; they have no cash value, and only the tournament chips, not cash, may be used during play.

Typically, the amount of each entrant's starting tournament chips is an integer multiple of the buy-in.

Some tournaments offer the option of a re-buy or buy-back ; this gives players the option of purchasing more chips.

In some cases, re-buys are conditional for example, offered only to players low on or out of chips but in others they are available to all players called add-ons.

When a player has no chips remaining and has exhausted or declined all re-buy options, if any are available he or she is eliminated from the tournament.

In most tournaments, the number of players at each table is kept even by moving players, either by switching one player or as the field shrinks taking an entire table out of play and distributing its players amongst the remaining tables.

A few tournaments, called shoot-outs , do not do this; instead, the last player sometimes the last two or more players at a table moves on to a second or third round, akin to a single-elimination tournament found in other games.

The prizes for winning are usually derived from the buy-ins, though outside funds may be entered as well. Tournaments without a buy-in are referred to as freerolls.

A freeroll tournament is free to enter and usually the player is given one chance in the tournament. A variation on a freeroll tournament is called a "freebuy".

In a freebuy event, a player can enter with a free entry, but if the player loses their chips during the registration period they are able to buy themselves back into the event.

Play continues, in most tournaments, until all but one player is eliminated, though in some tournament situations, especially informal ones, players have the option of ending by consensus.

Players are ranked in reverse chronological order — the last person in the game earns 1st place, the second-to-last earns 2nd, and so on. This ranking of players by elimination is unique amongst games, and also precludes the possibility of a tie for first place, since one player alone must have all the chips to end the tournament.

Ties are possible for all other places, though they are rare since the sole tiebreaker is the number of chips one has at the start of the hand in which one is eliminated, and hence two people would need to start a hand with exactly the same number of chips and both be eliminated on that same hand in order to tie with each other.

Sometimes tournaments end by mutual consensus of the remaining players. Rather than risk losing their winnings, as one of them would if the game were continued, these two players may be allowed to split the prize proportional to their in-game currency or however they agree.

Certain tournaments, known as bounty tournaments, place a bounty on some or all of the players. If a player knocks an opponent out, the player earns the opponent's bounty.

Individual bounties or total bounties collected by the end of a tournament may be used to award prizes. Bounties usually work in combination with a regular prize pool, where a small portion of each player's buy-in goes towards his or her bounty.

Other tournaments allow players to exchange some or all of their chips in the middle of a tournament for prize money, giving the chips cash value.

Separate portions of each player's buy-in go towards a prize pool and a "cash out" pool. The cash out rate is typically fixed, and a time when players may not cash out such as the final table is usually established.

The remaining cash out pool is either paid out to the remaining field or added to the regular prize pool. Tournaments can be open or invitational.

Multi-table tournaments involve many players playing simultaneously at dozens or even hundreds of tables.

Satellite tournaments to high-profile, expensive poker tournaments are the means of entering a major event without posting a significant sum of cash.

These have significantly smaller buy-ins, usually on the order of one-tenth to one-fiftieth the main tournament's buy-in, and can be held at various venues and, more recently, on the Internet.

Top players in this event, in lieu of a cash prize, are awarded seats to the main tourney, with the number of places dependent on participation.

The opposite of a multi-table tournament is a single-table tournament , often abbreviated STT. A number of places typically, two, six or nine are allocated at a single table, and as soon as the required number of players has appeared, chips are distributed and the game starts.

This method of starting single-table tournaments has caused them to be referred to as sit-and-go SNG tournaments, because when the required number of players "sit", the tournament "goes.

A single-table tournament effectively behaves the same as the final table of a multi-table tournament, except that the players all begin with the same number of chips, and the betting usually starts much lower.

Almost invariably, fixed payoffs are used. A tournament series may consist of either single-table or multi-table tournaments.

In a tournament series, multiple tournaments are played in which prizes are awarded. However, a series leaderboard or standings system is often used and additional prizes, drawn from the individual tournament buy-ins, are awarded to those who perform best overall in the series.

Major poker tournaments such as the World Poker Tour and World Series of Poker, use standings to determine a player of the year.

The most common playing format for poker tournaments is the "freezeout" format. All players still playing in a tournament constitute a dynamic pool.

Whenever a player loses all his chips and gets eliminated, his table shrinks. To combat the constant shrinking of tables and avoid having tables play with varying numbers of players, players are moved between tables, with unnecessary tables getting closed as the tournament progresses.

In the end, all remaining players are seated on just one table, known as the "final table". Most sit and go tournaments are freezeouts.

After one round of betting is done, the next betting round will start by the person in the small blind. When only two players remain, special 'head-to-head' or 'heads up' rules are enforced and the blinds are posted differently.

The dealer acts first before the flop. After the flop, the dealer acts last and continues to do so for the remainder of the hand.

The three most common variations of hold 'em are limit hold 'em, no-limit hold 'em and pot-limit hold 'em. Limit hold 'em has historically been the most popular form of hold 'em found in casino live action games in the United States.

In the next two rounds of betting turn and river , bets and raises must be equal to twice the big blind; this amount is called the big bet. No-limit hold 'em has grown in popularity and is the form most commonly found in televised tournament poker and is the game played in the main event of the World Series of Poker.

In no-limit hold 'em, players may bet or raise any amount over the minimum raise up to all of the chips the player has at the table called an all-in bet.

The minimum raise is equal to the size of the previous bet or raise. If someone wishes to re-raise, they must raise at least the amount of the previous raise.

If a raise or re-raise is all-in and does not equal the size of the previous raise or half the size in some casinos , the initial raiser cannot re-raise again in case there are other players also still in the game.

In pot-limit hold 'em, the maximum raise is the current size of the pot including the amount needed to call. Some casinos that offer hold 'em also allow the player to the left of the big blind to post an optional live straddle , usually double the amount of the big blind.

This causes that player to act as the big blind and the player has an option to raise when it comes to their turn again.

Some variations allow for straddle on the button. No-limit games may also allow multiple re-straddles, in any amount that would be a legal raise. Following a shuffle of the cards, play begins with each player being dealt two cards face down, with the player in the small blind receiving the first card and the player in the button seat receiving the last card dealt.

As in most poker games, the deck is a standard card deck containing no jokers. These cards are the players' hole or pocket cards.

These are the only cards each player will receive individually, and they will possibly be revealed only at the showdown , making Texas hold 'em a closed poker game.

The hand begins with a "pre-flop" betting round, beginning with the player to the left of the big blind or the player to the left of the dealer, if no blinds are used and continuing clockwise.

A round of betting continues until every player has folded, put in all of their chips, or matched the amount put in by all other active players.

See betting for a detailed account. Note that the blinds are considered "live" in the pre-flop betting round, meaning that they are counted toward the amount that the blind player must contribute.

If all players call around to the player in the big blind position, that player may either check or raise.

After the pre-flop betting round, assuming there remain at least two players taking part in the hand, the dealer deals a flop: The flop is followed by a second betting round.

This and all subsequent betting rounds begin with the player to the dealer's left and continue clockwise. After the flop betting round ends, a single community card called the turn or fourth street is dealt, followed by a third betting round.

A final single community card called the river or fifth street is then dealt, followed by a fourth betting round and the showdown, if necessary.

In the third and fourth betting rounds, the stakes double. In all casinos, the dealer will burn a card before the flop, turn, and river.

Because of this burn, players who are betting cannot see the back of the next community card to come. This is done for traditional reasons, to avoid any possibility of a player knowing in advance the next card to be dealt due to its being marked.

If a player bets and all other players fold, then the remaining player is awarded the pot and is not required to show their hole cards.

If two or more players remain after the final betting round, a showdown occurs. On the showdown, each player plays the best poker hand they can make from the seven cards comprising their two-hole cards and the five community cards.

A player may use both of their own two hole cards, only one, or none at all, to form their final five-card hand.

If the five community cards form the player's best hand, then the player is said to be playing the board and can only hope to split the pot, because each other player can also use the same five cards to construct the same hand.

If the best hand is shared by more than one player, then the pot is split equally among them, with any extra chips going to the first players after the button in clockwise order.

It is common for players to have closely valued, but not identically ranked hands. Nevertheless, one must be careful in determining the best hand; if the hand involves fewer than five cards, such as two pair or three of a kind , then kickers are used to settle ties see the second example below.

The card's numerical rank is of sole importance; suit values are irrelevant in hold 'em. If the first or second card dealt is exposed, then this is considered a misdeal.

The dealer then retrieves the card, reshuffles the deck, and again cuts the cards. However, if any other hole card is exposed due to a dealer error, the deal continues as usual.

After completing the deal, the dealer replaces the exposed card with the top card on the deck, and the exposed card is then used as the burn card.

If more than one hole card is exposed, a misdeal is declared by the dealer and the hand is dealt again from the beginning. Each player plays the best five-card hand they can make with the seven cards available.

In this case, Ted's full house is the best hand, with Carol in second, Alice in third and Bob last. Here is a sample game involving four players. The players' individual hands will not be revealed until the showdown, to give a better sense of what happens during play:.

Alice is the dealer. Alice deals two hole cards face down to each player, beginning with Bob and ending with herself.

Ted must act first, being the first player after the big blind. Carol's blind is "live" see blind , so there is the option to raise here, but Carol checks instead, ending the first betting round.

On this round, as on all subsequent rounds, the player on the dealer's left begins the betting. Alice now burns another card and deals the turn card face up.

Bob checks, Carol checks, and Alice checks; the turn has been checked around. Because of the presence of community cards in Texas hold 'em, different players' hands can often run very close in value.

As a result, it is common for kickers to be used to determine the winning hand and also for two hands or maybe more to tie.

A kicker is a card which is part of the five-card poker hand, but is not used in determining a hand's rank. The following situation illustrates the importance of breaking ties with kickers and card ranks, as well as the use of the five-card rule.

After the turn, the board and players' hole cards are as follows. Bob and Carol still each have two pair queens and eights , but both of them are now entitled to play the final ace as their fifth card, making their hands both two pair, queens and eights, with an ace kicker.

Bob's king no longer plays, because the ace on the board plays as the fifth card in both hands, and a hand is only composed of the best five cards.

They therefore tie and split the pot. However, had the last card been a jack or lower except an eight or a queen which would make a full house, or a ten which would give Carol a higher second pair , Bob's king would have stayed in the game and would have won.

Most poker authors recommend a tight- aggressive approach to playing Texas hold 'em. This strategy involves playing relatively few hands tight , but betting and raising often with those that one does play aggressive.

Almost all authors agree that where a player sits in the order of play known as position is an important element of Texas hold 'em strategy, particularly in no-limit hold'em.

As a result, players typically play fewer hands from early positions than later positions. Because of the game's level of complexity, it has received some attention from academics.

One attempt to develop a quantitative model of a Texas hold'em tournament as an isolated complex system has had some success, [43] although the full consequences for optimal strategies remain to be explored.

In addition, groups at the University of Alberta and Carnegie Mellon University worked to develop poker playing programs utilizing techniques in game theory and artificial intelligence.

Although it does not win every hand, it is unbeatable on average over a large number of hands. The program exhibits more variation in its tactics than professional players do, for instance bluffing with weak hands that professional players tend to fold.

Because only two cards are dealt to each player, it is easy to characterize all of the starting hands. Because no suit is more powerful than another , many of these can be equated for the analysis of starting-hand strategy.

Because of this equivalence, there are only effectively different hole-card combinations. Thirteen of these are pairs, from deuces twos to aces.

There are 78 ways to have two cards of different rank 12 possible hands containing one ace, 11 possible hands containing one king but no ace, 10 possible hands containing one queen but no ace or king, etc.

Both hole cards can be used in a flush if they are suited, but pairs are never suited, so there would be 13 possible pairs, 78 possible suited non-pairs, and 78 possible unsuited "off-suit" non-pairs, for a total of possible hands.

Because of the limited number of starting hands, most strategy guides include a detailed discussion of each of them.

This distinguishes hold 'em from other poker games where the number of starting card combinations forces strategy guides to group hands into broad categories.

Another result of this small number is the proliferation of colloquial names for individual hands. Texas Hold'em is commonly played both as a "cash" or "ring" game and as a tournament game.

Strategy for these different forms can vary. Before the advent of poker tournaments , all poker games were played with real money where players bet actual currency or chips that represented currency.

Games that feature wagering actual money on individual hands are still very common and are referred to as "cash games" or "ring games". The no-limit and fixed-limit cash-game versions of hold 'em are strategically very different.

Doyle Brunson claims that "the games are so different that there are not many players who rank with the best in both types of hold 'em.

Many no-limit players have difficulty gearing down for limit, while limit players often lack the courage and 'feel' necessary to excel at no-limit.

Because one is not usually risking all of one's chips in limit poker, players are sometimes advised to take more chances. Lower-stakes games also exhibit different properties than higher-stakes games.

Small-stakes games often involve more players in each hand and can vary from extremely passive little raising and betting to extremely aggressive many raises.

This difference of small-stakes games has prompted several books dedicated to only those games. Texas hold 'em is often associated with poker tournaments largely because it is played as the main event in many of the famous tournaments, including the World Series of Poker 's Main Event, and is the most common tournament overall.

Standard play allows all entrants to "buy-in" for a fixed amount and all players begin with an equal value of chips. Play proceeds until one player has accumulated all the chips in play or a deal is made among the remaining players to " chop " the remaining prize pool.

The money pool is redistributed to the players in relation to the place they finished in the tournament. Only a small percentage of the players receive any money, with the majority receiving nothing.

As a result, the strategy in poker tournaments can be very different from a cash game. Proper strategy in tournaments can vary widely depending on the amount of chips one has, the stage of the tournament, the amount of chips others have, and the playing styles of one's opponents.

In tournaments the blinds and antes increase regularly, and can become much larger near the end of the tournament.

This can force players to play hands that they would not normally play when the blinds were small, which can warrant both more loose and more aggressive play.

One of the most important things in Texas hold'em is knowing how to evaluate a hand. The strategy of playing each hand can be very different according to the strength of the hand.

For example, on a strong hand, a player might want to try to appear weak in order to not scare off other players with weaker hands, while on a weak hand, a player might try to bluff other players into folding.

There are several ways to evaluate hand strength; two of the most common are counting outs and using calculators. Such cards are called "outs", and hand strength can be measured by how many outs are still in the deck if there are many outs then the probability to get one of them is high and therefore the hand is strong.

The following chart determines the probability of hitting outs bettering the player's hand based on how many cards are left in the deck and the draw type.

There are several other poker variants which resemble Texas hold 'em. Hold 'em is a member of a class of poker games known as community card games , where some cards are available for use by all the players.

There are several other games that use five community cards in addition to some private cards and are thus similar to Texas hold 'em.

Royal hold 'em has the same structure as Texas hold 'em, but the deck contains only Aces, Kings, Queens, Jacks, and Tens.

The winner is either selected for each individual board with each receiving half of the pot, or the best overall hand takes the entire pot, depending on the rules agreed upon by the players.

Another variant is known as Greek hold 'em which requires each player to use both hole cards and only 3 from the board instead of the best five of seven cards.

Manila is a hold'em variant which was once popular in Australia. In Manila, players receive two private cards from a reduced deck containing no cards lower than 7.

A five card board is dealt, unlike Texas hold 'em, one card at a time; there is a betting round after each card. Manila has several variations of its own, similar to the variants listed above.

Six-plus hold 'em also known as Short-deck hold 'em is a community card poker game variant of Texas hold 'em, where cards 2 through 5 are removed.

Each player is dealt two cards face down and seeks make his or her best five card poker hand using from any combination of the seven cards five community cards and their own two hole cards.

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